TITLE: A Review of Solute Encapsulating Nanoparticles used as Delivery Systems with Emphasis on Branched Amphipathic Peptide Capsules

Authors: Sheila M. Barros, Susan K. Whitaker, Pinakin Sukthankar, L. Adriana Avila, Sushanth Gudlur, Matt Warner, Eduardo I.C. Beltrao, John M. Tomich

Various strategies are being developed to improve delivery and increase the biological half-lives of pharmacological agents. To address these issues, drug delivery technologies rely on different nano-sized molecules including: lipid vesicles, viral capsids and nano-particles. Peptides are a constituent of many of these nanomaterials and overcome some limitations associated with lipid-based or viral delivery systems, such as tune-ability, stability, specificity, inflammation, and antigenicity. This review focuses on the evolution of bio-based drug delivery nanomaterials that self-assemble forming vesicles/capsules. While lipid vesicles are preeminent among the structures; peptide-based constructs are emerging, in particular peptide bilayer delimited capsules.

The novel biomaterialdBranched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules (BAPCs) display many desirable properties. These nano-spheres are comprised of two branched peptidesdbis(FLIVI)-K-KKKK and bis(FLIVIGSII)-K-KKKK, designed to mimic diacyl-phosphoglycerides in molecular architecture. They undergo supramolecular self-assembly and form solvent-filled, bilayer delineated capsules with sizes ranging from 20 nm to 2 mm depending on annealing temperatures and time. They are able to encapsulate different fluorescent dyes, therapeutic drugs, radionuclides and even small proteins. While sharing many properties with lipid vesicles, the BAPCs are much more robust. They have been analyzed for stability, size, cellular uptake and localization, intra-cellular retention and, bio-distribution both in culture and in vivo.